[ Humanism ] :
Doctrine, philosophical attitude, a movement of thought that takes Mankind as its end and supreme value, that aims at the fulfillment of the human person and the respect of their dignity. (The Dictionary of the French Academy (DAF) - 2011)
Philosophy that places Mankind and human values above all other values. (Larousse & Wikipédia)
[ Sorority ] :
Expression of solidarity between women. Sorority refers to the bonds between women who feel affinities, have a shared experience due to their common feminine condition and the social status that is then linked to it.
This term was first used by feminists in the 1970s to bring the female equivalent of "fraternity" into the common language. The English term sisterhood had already been coined by American women's movements in response to the term brotherhood.
The word "sorority" existed in the French language (especially in Rabelais' writings), long before the second wave of feminism.
Its semantic evolution seems to respond to the emergence in the United States of the slogan "sisterhood is powerful" ("sorority is powerful").
In 1970, Robin Morgan, poet and figure of radical feminism, published "Sisterhood is Powerful", one of the first anthologies of feminist writing in the United States. This blog title is used (with "the private is political") by a small group of women who met in the late 1960s in a New York apartment.
In 1969, some of them launched the Redstockings collective and called on women to unite to obtain their "final liberation". The formula "sorority is powerful" appeared in those years on signs, badges and flyers distributed in demonstrations.
Feminist and author Carol Hanisch even initialled all her letters with this formula.
The feminist use of "sorority" therefore dates back to the 1970s, to the beginning of what has been called the "second wave of feminism". At the time, women activists tried to show that there was a common condition for women, a specific oppression - patriarchy - that would not disappear even if capitalism were abolished.
Sorority thus marks the emergence of an "us women" while the Marxist tradition, influential at the time, maintains that there can be no common struggle between working women and bourgeois women.
The history of feminism is made up of ebb and flow (the famous wave metaphor). The militant vocabulary follows the same movement, which explains the relative forgetting of the word "sorority" until recently. How to explain what looks like a return ?
After the Weinstein case, thousands of people were able to testify to the massive nature of violence against women. The slogan #Metoo reflects a spirit of solidarity that is the foundation of sorority.
Like the focus groups of the 1970s, social networks create a link, making it possible to formulate what was not: what was individual experience becomes collective (and therefore political). (Article L'OBS : By the way, where does this "sorority", constantly invoked by Marlene Schiappa, come from ?)
"Sisterhood refers to the links between those who feel similar affinities, similar experiences, due to the fact that they share the same female condition. Neither victim, nor isolated, nor jealous, nor in competition, nor alienated, it is (also) in sharing with other women that the witch manages to emancipate herself. No matter that she is the wife of one (or more) man (s), it is in the encounter with her peers that she can work, deliver, alchemy her sacred feminine, the wild woman who vibrates in her womb...
Pascale d'Erm (Author of Sisters in Ecology) clarifies this term: she reminds us that the notion of sorority does not imply forced idealism or forced sentiment. She perceives it more as a convergence of intuitions and needs. Because a small alarm went off in the consciousness of each of them, they sought to act, to commit themselves, to reflect, to make a community to feel more powerful." (Book Soul of a Witch - Odile Chabrillac)
[ Feminisim ] :
Feminism is a set of political, philosophical and social movements and ideas that share a common goal : to define, promote and achieve political, economic, cultural, personal, social and legal equality between women and men. Feminism therefore aims to abolish gender inequalities in these different areas, of which women are the main victims, and thus to promote women's rights in civil society and private life. (Wikipédia)
"It is not a question of feminism of combat, confrontation, competition, but rather of feminism by nature : women, they occupy their place as women, without wanting to pre-empt that of men. But simply affirming their specificity may be what makes them revolutionary in their own way. This is no longer the time for revenge or anger. Perhaps it is to lay down one's arms, to pacify the past, while refusing to be totally compromised and ambiguous. Some of them may choose to militate, denounce sexism, claim. With the tools of yesterday and today. Rituals, but also online petitions - hashtag often replaces the Sabbath! -Basically, the idea remains the same: to regroup in order to reclaim one's own power and then to challenge other women, the public in general, and also the institutions in place. Getting out of the status of victim, becoming an actor of change, acting a little, a lot, passionately, at the risk of not pleasing everyone. But it's no longer a problem..." (Book Soul of a Witch - Odile Chabrillac)
[ Feminicide ] :
Murder of a woman, a girl because of her sex. (le Petit Robert - 2015).
Term originally coined by American sociologist Diana E; H. Russell in 1976, defines "the murder of women committed by men because they are women". (Wikipédia)
This term, which is now frequently used in the public space and in the media, has no legal existence in France.
In the world : 1 woman is killed by a relative every 10 minutes. (United Nations report - GLOBAL STUDY ON HOMICIDE Gender-related killing of women and girls - 2018)
The World Health Organization distinguishes several cases :
"Intimate" feminicide : committed by the victim's current or former spouse. According to a study cited by the World Health Organization, more than 35% of women killed worldwide are killed by their partners, compared to only 5% of murders involving men; (WHO - Understanding and Combating Violence Against Women Feminicide)
"Honour" crimes : when a woman accused of breaking moral laws or traditions - committing adultery, having sex or pregnancy outside marriage, or even being raped - is killed to protect the family's reputation. The murderer may be a male or female member of the family or clan ;
Dowry feminicide : especially in India, when young women are killed by their in-laws for bringing insufficient money to the marriage ;
Non-intimate feminicide : a crime that involves sexual assault or in which women are explicitly targeted. The most frequently cited examples are the hundreds of women killed over many years at Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, or during the antifeminist massacre at the Ecole polytechnique de Montréal in 1989. (WHO - Understanding and combating violence against women. The Feminicide)
[ Moral harassment at work ] :
Moral harassment manifests itself in repeated malicious acts such as derogatory remarks, intimidation or insults...
These actions lead to a significant deterioration in the victim's working conditions, and can lead to :
violate their rights and dignity,
affect physical or mental health,
or compromise their professional future.
If you are a victim of psychological harassment, you can benefit from the protection of the law, whether you are an employee, trainee or apprentice.
Such acts are prohibited, even if there is no hierarchical link between you and the perpetrator..
For more information on Prevention, Remedies and Sanctions : (Service-public.fr - Your Rights - Moral harassment at work)
[ Sexual harassment ] :
Sexual harassment is characterized by the repeated imposition on a person of sexual or sexist comments or behaviours that :
violate their dignity because of their degrading or humiliating nature,
or create an intimidating, hostile or offensive situation against him.
Sexual harassment includes any form of serious pressure (even if not repeated) for the real or apparent purpose of obtaining a sexual act, for the benefit of the perpetrator or a third party.
In both cases, sexual harassment is punished regardless of the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, even outside the workplace (harassment by a relative, a neighbour, etc.).
If the perpetrator has had physical contact with you, it could be a sexual assault, which is a more serious offence than sexual harassment.
For more information on Prevention, Remedies and Sanctions : (Service-public.fr - Your Rights - Sexual Harassment at Work)
For more information on sexual harassment and gender-based behaviour in the workplace :
Key dates and highlights
1907 : The French law grants married women free disposal of their wages. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
1909 : Introduction of 8 weeks' maternity leave without breach of contract but without pay. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
1924 : Secondary school curricula and the baccalaureate become identical for girls and boys. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
The right to vote is granted to women in France on April 21, 1944. They will use it for the first time in the municipal elections of April 29, 1945. French women are among the last women in the Western world to acquire the right to vote and to be elected, just before Italy, Belgium, Greece and Switzerland. (Government website inequalities between women and men)
In 1945, the notion of "female salary" is replaced in the texts of French legislation by the principle of "equal pay for equal work". (Government website inequalities between women and men)
1946 : The principle of equality between women and men in all fields is now enshrined in the preamble to the Constitution. (Secretariat of State for
1966 : The reform of matrimonial property regimes came into force on February 1, 1966. It is only since that date that a woman can take up
employment without the authorization of her husband, freely dispose of her own property and have a bank account. (Government website inequalities between women and men)
1967 : Neuwirth Law authorizing contraception. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
1970 : Maternity leave is 90% compensated by the Maternity Insurance.
Creation of parental leave for education and abolition of the notion of "head of family". (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
It was not until 1970 that the mother became the equal of the father in matters of parental authority. Parental authority will become "joint", whether or not the parents are married, 17 years later, in 1987. (Government website inequalities between women and men)
1972 : The principle of equal pay for women and men is enshrined in law. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
1973 : The mother may transmit her nationality to her legitimate or natural child. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
1975 : Introduction of divorce by mutual consent.
Obligation of school mix. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
The law of 17 January 1975 on the voluntary termination of pregnancy, known as the Veil law, is a law that provides a framework for the decriminalization of abortion in France. The law was promulgated on 17 January 1975, for 5 years on an experimental basis. It is renewed without time limit by a law of 31 December 1979. (See Wikipedia page)
Marital rape has only been considered a crime in France since 1990 (See Wikipedia page)
1992 : Sexual Harassment in Labour Relations Act. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
1995 : Creation of the Observatory on Gender Parity. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
2000 : Implementation Act on Equal Access to Electoral Mandates for Women and Men.
Law on emergency contraception, which no longer makes it subject to mandatory prescription. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
2001 : The Genisson Law on Professional Equality between Women and Men, which aims to develop social dialogue on this subject in the sector and
An Act to extend the legal time limit for abortion from 10 to 12 weeks.
Law on the fight against discrimination in employment, which specifies in particular the legal regime for evidence. (Secretariat of State for
2002 : The Patronymic Transmission Act which authorizes the transmission of the name of the mother or father or both to children. (Secretariat of State
2004 : Divorce law: protection of the spouse who is a victim of violence. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
2006 : Law on equal pay for women and men.
Law on the prevention and repression of violence within the couple. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
2008 : Law of 27 May 2008 adapting to Community law in the field of the fight against discrimination : among the grounds, "maternity including
maternity leave". (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
2010 : Act of 9 July 2010 on specific violence against women, violence within couples and the impact of such violence on children, establishes the
order for the protection of victims and the sanction for its violation, the total withdrawal of parental authority for persons convicted of a crime against the other parent as perpetrator, co-author or accomplice and defines the offence of psychological violence. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
2011 : the Copé-Zimmerman Act, which establishes a mandatory quota for women on company boards of directors, also has an effect.
Since January 1, 2012, a decree has introduced a penalty for companies with more than 50 employees that do not provide for an agreement or action plan relating to professional equality. (Government website inequalities between women and men)
Act No. 2012-954 of August 6, 2012 on sexual harassment, which defines sexual harassment. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
Law of August 4, 2014 for substantive equality between women and men, aims to combat inequalities between men and women in the private, professional and public spheres. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality)
November 2017 : Emmanuel Macron, the President of the French Republic, declares the fight against gender-based violence and discrimination Great National Cause. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality - Declaration of National Great Cause)
The case of Harvey Weinstein (a film producer charged with sexual assault) in October 2017 (See Wikipédia Page)
The international impact of this case is significant in Europe, Latin America and Asia. They lead to many demonstrations and countless mobilizations on social networks. The case generates a series of accusations against many public figures in the media, politics and entertainment: the phenomenon is nicknamed the "Weinstein effect". More broadly, this case leads to a debate on violence against women and its concealment, questioning the status of women in society. (See Wikipedia page)
October 2017 : After Weinstein Case: Movement #metoo, in French : #BalanceTonPorc (#MoiAussi in French-speaking Canada) is a hashtag that was widely distributed on social networks in October 2017 to denounce sexual assault and harassment, particularly in the workplace, following accusations of this nature against American producer Harvey Weinstein. It was the French version of the MeToo campaign, used since 2007 by activist Tarana Burke and relaunched in October 2017 as hashtag #MeToo by actress Alyssa Milano, that encouraged women to share their experiences on Twitter. (See Wikipedia page)
Saint Cyr Scandale 2018 : "Until now, I had the project to join the Special Military School (ESM) in Saint-Cyr. I am ashamed that I wanted to go into an army that is not ready to receive women. I learned that carrying a vagina ruins a career, a vocation, a life.". (Survey Libération)
Incels Movement: a group of online communities of single misogynists characterized by resentment, misogyny and the promotion of violence against women and men that is sexually flourishing : killings in Toronto in April 2018 (See Wikipédia page)
Law of August 3, 2018 : Strengthening of the fight against gender-based and sexual violence by strengthening sanctions for perpetrators. This law extends the definition of sexual harassment, adding sexist behaviour to the offence, and specifying the criterion of repeated acts of harassment. The notion of cyber-harassment is now taken into account by this law. In order to broaden the scope of offences, the Act of 3 August 2018 created a new offence : sexist insult, which corresponds to the act of "imposing on a person statements with a sexual or sexist connotation that violate one's dignity because of their degrading or humiliating nature, creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive situation". Unlike the offence of sexual harassment, provided for in the Labour Code, sexist insult does not require any repetition to be punished. It therefore fully applies to street harassment. According to the application circular of 3 September 2018, sexual proposals, certain non-verbal attitudes such as intimidating gestures or gestures suggesting a sexual act, whistling or obscene sound effects or intended to degrade the victim, degrading comments on the victim's clothing or physical appearance will be considered as sexist insult. (Légifrance & @WondHer)
November 2018 : #NousToutes Events : on 24 November, 50,000 people marched throughout France against misogynous violence In Paris, there were 30,000 of them, led by trans women, sex workers, veiled... A great first, as noted on Twitter by the #NousToutes movement, complementary to #WeAll. (Glamour)
The 2019 G7 Summit took place from 24/08/19 to 26/08/19, in Biarritz, France. It brought together the permanent participants of the 2018 G7 Summit: The United States, United Kingdom, Canada, France, Germany, Italy and Japan. The IMF, the UN and the OECD were also represented. The guiding theme chosen by France for this Grenelle is the Fight against Gender Inequalities.
The recommendations of the Equality Advisory Council presented to all participants at the G7 are :
1/ Abolish laws that discriminate against women and support progressive laws.
2/ Funding feminist civil society organizations.
3/ Make the fight against gender-based violence a national priority.
4/ Eliminate online harassment, revenge porn, female genital mutilation and child marriage.
5/ Invest in inclusive, equitable and quality education for girls and women worldwide.
6/ Protecting sexual and reproductive rights and health.
7/ Challenge harmful gender stereotypes and norms.
8/ Promote women's leadership and participation in all sectors.
9/ Establish equal pay, affordable childcare and paid parental leave.
10/ Defend women and Gender Equality worldwide on a daily basis.
In total, 79 good practices in gender equality laws in 4 sectors (violence, economic empowerment, education and health, discrimination) and in all regions of the world. The Advisory Council invited the G7 leaders to adopt and implement at least one of the laws set out in these recommendations, to strengthen existing laws and to start these legislative processes before the next G7 Summit (2020 in the United States). When the G7 left Biarritz, all the G7 countries committed themselves to this. The Council urges G7 leaders to be as courageous as girls and women are every day.
The G7 movement brings together associations that defend the rights of women and girls in the G7 countries and around the world, and that mobilize for the G7 to take political and financial measures in favour of gender equality. (@women7official)
On September 3, 2019 took place the Grenelle of domestic violence : this date, chosen to echo 3919, is the beginning of a long series of meetings that will end on November 25, the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality - Fight against feminicide)
November 23, 2019 : March to say STOP to gender-based and sexual violence against women. (@noustoutesorg)
November 25, 2019 : International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality - Fight against feminicide)
Half of the Human Beings in the World are Women. (The World Bank)
Assaults and touching in public transport and public places
2/3 of public transport passengers are women.
(Chantal Duchène, « Transport and Gender Equity", Reference Document 2011 - 11, International Transport Forum/OECD)
100% of women who use public transport have been victims of gender-based harassment or sexual assault at least once in their lives, whether or not they are aware that this is part of the phenomenon. Young women are particularly affected. In more than 50% of cases, the first assault occurs before the age of 18. (Results of HCEfh consultations, March 2015)
In public transport, 2/3 of the victims of insults and offenses are women, as are the overwhelming majority of victims of sexual violence. The victims of assault are mainly men. (Violence against women in public land transport - Summary of the exploratory study, the ONDT and the CIPC, March 2015)
Women are more likely to be victims of gender-based and sexual violence on school buses and coaches and men on trains. ("Violence against women in public land transport - Summary of the exploratory study", by the ONDT and the CIPC, March 2015)
Violence is rather committed during the day, between 8am and 8pm, i.e. when women use public transport the most. Men constitute the majority of victims from 9pm onwards. (« Violence against women in public land transport - Summary of the exploratory study", by ONDT and the CIPC, March 2015)
6 out of 10 women fear aggression or theft in Ile-de-France transport against 3 out of 10 men. (Victimization survey by the Institut d'aménagement et d'urbanisme de la région Ile de France, 2011)
One in two women is afraid on public transport. (Urban planning Institute published in April 2017)
40% of women have given up going to certain public places because of sexist behaviour. (#NonCestNonauharcèlementderue)
In France, 85% of the victims of attacks on public transport are women. For two-thirds of them, the sexual nature of the assault is manifested by physical contact, such as a kiss or a caress. (ONDRP and INHESJ study - Sexual abuse on public transport)
Francilian women are said to represent 60% of metropolitan women victims of sexual abuse on public transport. In Ile-de-France or elsewhere in metropolitan France, almost all victims do not know the perpetrators (94%). (ONDRP and INHESJ study - Sexual abuse on public transport)
267,000 women were victims of friction or touching on public transport between 2014 and 2015 in France. In the Paris region, 7.6% of women aged 18 to 21 have been sexually abused. (ONDRP and INHESJ study - Sexual abuse on public transport)
Types of demonstrations of sexual violence in public transport : exhibitions (27%), rubbing (12%), touching (54%), other sexual offences (7%) (pornographic image exhibition, up skirting, etc.) (ONDRP and INHESJ study - Sexual abuse on public transport)
86% of French women have, at least once, been victims of some form of public assault or aggression on the street. (IFOP survey for the Jean-Jaurès Foundation)
38% of homeless people are women, for whom the street is even harder because of violence and sexual assault, lack of non-mixed shelters and lack of hygiene during their periods. (INSEE survey 2012)
65% of French women began to be victims of street harassment before the age of 15. (Results of HCEfh consultations, March 2015)
In France, 82% of women have already been victims of street harassment before the age of 17. (Results of HCEfh consultations, March 2015)
The reworded offence of sexual assault : "Except in the case of rape or any other sexual assault, the act of sexual abuse by an adult against a minor under 15 years of age shall be punishable by seven years' imprisonment and a fine of €100,000".. (Law n° 2018-703 of 3 August 2018 - Article 227-25 of the Penal Code)
The offence of administering substances : "The act of administering to a person, without his knowledge, a substance likely to impair his discernment or control of his acts in order to commit rape or sexual assault against him shall be punishable by five years' imprisonment and a fine of €75,000". (Law n° 2018-703 of 3 August 2018 - Article 222-30-1 of the Penal Code)
NB: The offence is punishable by 7 years' imprisonment and a fine of €100,000 in the event of an aggravating circumstance (when committed against a minor or a particularly vulnerable person). (CFCV - Complement Law n° 2018-703 of August 3, 2018)
The offence of voyeurism known as "upskirting" : "The act of using any means to see the private parts of a person who, by reason of his clothing or his presence in a closed place, has hidden from the sight of third parties, when committed without the person's knowledge or consent, is punishable by one year's imprisonment and a fine of €15,000". (Law n° 2018-703 of 3 August 2018 - Article 226-3-1 of the Penal Code)
NB: The offence is punishable by 2 years' imprisonment and a fine of €30,000 in the event of an aggravating circumstance (in particular when it is committed against a minor, a vulnerable person or when images have been fixed, recorded or transmitted). (CFCV - Complement Law n° 2018-703 of August 3, 2018)
The contravention of sexist insult or "street harassment" : "It is a sexist offence to impose on a person any sexual or sexist comment or conduct that violates his or her dignity because of its degrading or humiliating nature or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive situation against him or her". (Law n° 2018-703 of 3 August 2018 - Article 621-1 of the Penal Code)
The fine for sexist insult is a maximum of 750€ but can go up to €1500 in case of aggravating circumstances (for example, on a minor under 15 years of age or on public transport). Additional penalties such as citizenship or gender internships may also be imposed. (CFCV - Complement Law n° 2018-703 of August 3, 2018)
Non-reporting of offences and non-assistance to persons in danger: aggravated offences : " The failure of any person who has knowledge of deprivations, ill-treatment or sexual assault or abuse inflicted on a minor or on a person who is unable to protect himself or herself because of age, illness, infirmity, physical or psychological disability or pregnancy to inform the judicial or administrative authorities or to continue not to inform them until such offences have ceased shall be punishable by three years' imprisonment and a fine of €45 000". (Law n° 2018-703 of 3 August 2018 - Article 434-3 of the Penal Code)
NB: The law also strengthens the protection of minors under 15 years of age by increasing in particular the offences of non-assistance to a person in danger (the fact of voluntarily refraining from rescuing a person in danger or a victim of a crime or offence without endangering oneself or a third person (article 223-6 of the Penal Code)) and of non-reporting an offence when they concern a victim under 15 years old. In this case, the penalty is increased from 5 to 7 years' imprisonment and from €75,000 to a fine of €100,000. (CFCV - Complement Law n° 2018-703 of August 3, 2018)
The offences of sexual harassment and widespread psychological harassment : " Sexual harassment is the act of repeatedly imposing on a person statements or behaviours of a sexual or sexist nature that either violate one's dignity because of their degrading or humiliating nature or create an intimidating, hostile or offensive situation against the person. The offence also includes :
- When these comments or behaviours are imposed on the same victim by several persons in a concerted manner or at the instigation of one of them, even though each of these persons has not acted repeatedly
- When these comments or behaviours are imposed on the same victim, successively by several persons who, even in the absence of consultation, know that these comments or behaviours characterise a repetition (...). (Law n° 2018-703 of 3 August 2018 - Article 222-33 of the Penal Code)
In addition, three new aggravating circumstances have been added to the offence of sexual harassment when the acts are committed :
- Through the use of an online public communication service or through a digital or electronic medium;
- While a minor was present and attended
- By an ascendant or any other person having de jure or de facto authority over the victim.
The penalties are then increased to 3 years' imprisonment and a fine of €45,000. (CFCV - Complement Law n° 2018-703 of August 3, 2018)
Violence and rape
In 2017: 94,000 adult women report having been victims of rape and/or attempted rape.
9 out of 10 victims know the attacker.
1 in 10 victims report having filed a complaint. (MIPROF - letter N°13 - "Couple violence and sexual violence" - November 2018 - Ministry of Interior)
86% of victims of sexual violence registered by the police and gendarmerie are women.
(MIPROF - letter N°13 - "Couple violence and sexual violence" - November 2018 - Ministry of Interior)
Since October 2017 and the beginning of the movement #MeToo, the number of victims of sexual violence known to the security forces over a year has increased by 23%. (Ministry of Interior)
99% of those convicted of sexual violence are men.
In 2016 : 84,000 Female victims of rape or attempted rape. (MIPROF - letter N°8 - "Violence against women" - November 2015)
In 2015 : In France, more than 62,000 women were victims of rape or attempted rape (VS 2,700 men, or 4% of the rapes and attempted rapes recorded). (INED Violence and Gender Reports Survey)
In 2015 alone, 580,000 women reported having been sexually assaulted, compared to 197,000 men. (INED Violence and Gender Reports Survey)
In 90% of cases, victims know their abusers : 45% of abusers are spouses or ex-spouses.
Indeed, 93% of the calls received by the 3919 platform managed by the National Federation Solidarity Women are calls related to domestic violence. And only 9 to 10% of victims file complaints. (IFOP survey for the Jean-Jaurès Foundation)
- 10% are unknown
Parmi les femmes victimes de viols et de tentatives de viols :
- 21% se sont rendues dans un commissariat ou une gendarmerie,
- 10% ont déposé plainte,
-7 % une main courante.
During their lifetime, 14.5% of women reported having experienced at least one form of sexual assault, compared to only 3.9% of men. (INED Violence and Gender Reports Survey)
About 30,000 people are prostituted in France.
85% of prostitutes in France are women. 93% are foreign, mainly from Eastern Europe (Romania and Bulgaria), West Africa (Nigeria) and China.
51% of prostitutes have been physically abused in prostitution (in the last 12 months), 64% have been insulted and / or humiliated or stigmatized.
38% of prostitutes have been raped in their lifetime. This rate is 6.8% for women in the general population.
29% of prostitutes have had suicidal thoughts in the past 12 months.
(MIPROF - The Letter from the National Observatory on Violence Against Women - Prostitution in France : the extent of the phenomenon and its impact on prostitutes - 2017)
16% of French people have been sexually abused in childhood (@noustoutesorg)
Another often hidden physical violence, female genital mutilation affected about 53,000 women in France in 2004. It is now estimated that the number of victims of these mutilations is approximately 60,000. (INED Violence and Gender Reports Survey).
43% of French women have already been followed for part of their journey during their lifetime (European average : 37%.). (IFOP survey for the Jean-Jaurès Foundation)
40% of French people think that if a girl is raped or assaulted, it is partly her fault. (ONDRP study)
Physical defence is effective in 90% of cases. Only in 0.3% of cases does it aggravate the situation. (Irene Zeilinger - Author "No is No", sociologist, trainer of verbal and physical self-defense).
Domestic violence and feminicides
In 2019 : A woman dies in France every 2 days under the blows of her spouse or ex-spouse. (@femen_offical)
Every year in France, 225,000 women are victims of physical and/or sexual violence within the couple. (Ministry of Interior)
On 10/22/19 : 124 women have died by their spouse or ex-spouse in France since 01/01/19 (@noustoutesorg)
In 2017: 130 women were killed by their "official" or "unofficial" partner or ex-partner, or one woman every 2.8 days. (MIPROF - letter N°13 - "Couple violence and sexual violence" - November 2018 - Ministry of the Interior)
83% of violent deaths occur within the so-called "official" couple. Whether within "official" or unofficial" couples, women are the main victims of these homicides (86% of victims). (ONDRP survey - 2019)
Dans plus de 8 affaires sur 10 (85 %), les homicides ont lieu dans un domicile (du couple, de la victime ou bien de l’auteur). Les mobiles de ces crimes sont principalement la dispute (32 %) et la séparation (26 %). (Enquête ONDRP - 2019)
219,000 adult women report having been victims of physical and / or sexual violence by their spouse or ex-spouse in 2017.
3 out of 4 report having been subjected to repeated incidents.
8 out of 10 say they have also been subjected to psychological and/or verbal abuse.
(MIPROF - letter N°13 - "Couple violence and sexual violence" - November 2018 - via "Living Environment and Security Survey" 2012-2018 INSEE ONDRP - SSM-SI)
Less than 1 in 5 victims report having filed a complaint. ("Living Environment and Safety Survey" 2012-2018 INSEE ONDRP - SSM-SI)
Almost half of the victims did not make any contact with a professional or an association. ("Living Environment and Safety Survey" 2012-2018 INSEE ONDRP - SSM-SI)
88% of victims of partner violence registered by the police and gendarmerie are women.
(MIPROF - letter N°13 - "Couple violence and sexual violence" - November 2018 - Ministry of the Interior)
96% of those convicted of partner violence are male.
In 2015, 122 women were killed by their spouses, compared to 22 men, according to the Ministry of the Interior's delegation to victims. A study conducted the previous year showed that of the 65,000 incidents of non-lethal intentional violence reported by law enforcement officers within the couple, nearly 60,000 victims were women. (Le Monde - Victims' Delegation, Ministry of the Interior)
Domestic violence lasts 25% longer in rural areas than in cities. The isolation of women, the lack of infrastructure and the rural "community" spirit lock victims in a circle of violence. (National Rural Crime Network Study)
143,000 children live in households where adult women are victims of domestic, physical and / or sexual violence.
Government website "STOP VIOLENCE - Gender and sexual violence, Reacting can change everything"
Government website reporting portal "Reporting sexual and gender-based violence, #NeRienLaisserPasser, Reacting can change everything"
In the World
Assaults and touching in public transport and public places
On average, more than 81.5% of European Women were assaulted on the street before the age of 17. (Hollaback Study - 2015)
A survey conducted in 15 of the world's largest capitals and New York City ranked the most dangerous cities for women in terms of public transit use. The top performers are Bogota, Mexico City, Lima and Delhi. Paris is in 11th position. (YouGov - Most dangerous transport systems for women)
In Japan, they are called "tchikan". Drowned among Japanese train line users, these sexual predators assault young girls, especially schoolgirls. There are now more than 10,000 of them acting (most stalkers are husbands and fathers acting in crowded trains, especially in large cities). (Les inrockuptibles - In Japan, daily sexual assaults are on the rise in crowded trains).
In Germany, radical measures have been taken. On the line between Leipzig and Chemnitz, train compartments are reserved for women. The same is true in India, Japan or Egypt, where the concept is a success and puts an end to harassment in transport. (Cosmopolitain)
36% of European women have already been the subject of sexist remarks, mockery or insults in the street during their lives, for 50% of American women. (IFOP survey for the Jean-Jaurès Foundation)
36% of European women have already been subjected to coarse gestures with sexual connotations in the street during their lives (50% for Spanish women), 46% for American women. (IFOP survey for the Jean-Jaurès Foundation)
56% of German women have already been repeatedly approached on the street in their lifetime, despite their lack of consent (European average: 45%). (IFOP survey for the Jean-Jaurès Foundation)
35% of Spanish women have already been victims of exhibitionism in the street during their lives. (IFOP survey for the Jean-Jaurès Foundation)
40% of British women have been sexually touched or touched (e.g. hands on their buttocks) despite their lack of consent on the street during their lifetime (European average: 34%), for 41% of American women. (IFOP survey for the Jean-Jaurès Foundation)
40% of German women have been victims of at least one form of sexual assault or assault on the street in the past 12 months. (IFOP survey for the Jean-Jaurès Foundation)
Violence and rape
Worldwide: 1 in 10 girls is sexually assaulted before the age of 20. (@womensafe_isg & @Women7official)
1 in 5 women reported in 2018 that they had been physically assaulted in the past 12 months. (@WONDHER)
70% of women in the world are victims of violence during their lifetime. This violence most often comes from their spouses and with rape they represent particularly high risks for 15-44 year olds. To such an extent that cases of rape and domestic violence represent a greater risk for these women than cancer, road accidents, war and malaria combined (France Culture - Banque Mondiale).
1 in 3 women is or will be a survivor of physical or sexual violence during her lifetime. (ONU WOMEN - Global Database on Violence against women)
Sexual violence committed by persons other than spouses is highest in Africa (45.6% in Africa, 40.2% in South-East Asia, 36.4% in the Eastern Mediterranean, 36.1% in America, 27.9% in the Western Pacific and 27.2% in Europe). A high figure in Africa due to the practice of rape as a weapon of war to terrorize populations and deliberately transmit HIV to women. This practice has long been ignored by the international community. It was not until 1992 and the increase in rape in the former Yugoslavia that the United Nations Security Council declared, on 18 December 1992, that "the massive, organized and systematic detention and rape of women, particularly Muslim women, in Bosnia and Herzegovina constituted an international crime that could not be ignored". (France Culture - European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights).
According to a UN Security Council report, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Libya, Burma, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan (Darfur) are countries in conflict where sexual violence is regularly perpetrated. For example, United Nations agencies estimate that more than 60,000 women were raped during the civil war in Sierra Leone (1991-2002) and 40,000 in Liberia (1989-2003). According to the UN, between 250,000 and 500,000 women were raped during the 1994 Rwandan genocide and more than 200,000 women have reportedly suffered sexual violence since 1998 in Congo. (Sexual violence in conflict situations - Federation of FPS Family Planning Centres)
Despite legislative measures at the international level, cases of rape in wartime are commonplace. For example, two years after the United Nations Security Council declaration, it is estimated that during the 1994 Rwanda Genocide, between 250,000 and 500,000 women were victims of rape. A war crime currently practiced in Syria and Iraq by the Daech jihadists. (France Culture - European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights).
Nearly 3 out of 4 trafficked girls and women are trafficked for sexual exploitation.
Some initiation rites also encourage abuse. In remote areas of southern Malawi, a sex worker known as a "hyena" was until recently paid by families to have sex with their young daughters from their first menstruation. A law is reportedly about to end this "sexual cleansing" that caused a scandal in the summer of 2016. (France Culture)
At least 200 million women and girls have been subjected to FGM in 30 countries. Of these victims, 44 million are girls under 15 years of age. (UNICEF's DATA WORK ON Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting)
These practices are criminally condemned in France and in 24 of the 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where they are practiced. (The letter from the National Observatory on Violence Against Women - February 2017)
More than 2.5 billion girls and women worldwide are affected by discriminatory laws and lack of legal protection. (G7 - Publication of the report of the Advisory Council for Equality between Women and Men)
About 650 million girls and women worldwide are married before the age of 18. (Unicef -Child Marriage: Latest trends and future prospects - 2018)
A minor girl is married every 2 seconds in the world. (@Women7official)
In Argentina, every 3 hours, a girl aged 10 to 14 gives birth to a child every 3 hours. (@noustoutesorg)
Domestic violence and feminicides
In the world : 1 woman is killed by a relative every 10 minutes. (UN Report - GLOBAL STUDY ON HOMICIDE Gender-related killing of women and girls - 2018)
It is estimated that approximately 87,000 women worldwide were intentionally killed in 2017, more than half (58%) of them by their spouses or family members.
This means that on average every day in the world, 137 women are killed by a relative, more than a third of them (about 30,000 in total) by a spouse or ex-spouse.
The home is thus "the most dangerous place" for a woman. (UN Report - GLOBAL STUDY ON HOMICIDE Gender-related killing of women and girls - 2018)
In 2012, half of all female homicide victims worldwide were killed by their spouses, ex-spouses or partners. A figure that illustrates the difficult recognition of domestic violence in some countries. (The World Bank - Women, Business and the Law)
At the European level, physical and sexual violence against women by their spouses is still prevalent. The countries in the old continent where women are most vulnerable to violence remain the Baltic countries. In Denmark, Latvia and Finland, one third of women have been victims of physical and / or sexual violence by their spouses since the age of 15. On the other hand, the countries where women are the least victims of violence are the Latin countries. In Spain, Italy and Portugal, the number of women victims of violence by their spouses reaches 13%, 19% and 19% respectively.
Worldwide, almost one-third (30%) of all women in a couple relationship have experienced physical and / or sexual violence from their intimate partners. In some areas, 38% of women have experienced violence from their intimate partners. (WHO - Global and regional estimates of violence against women)
Worldwide, there are nearly 700 million women victims of domestic violence, or 30% of all victims of violence. And it is in Southeast Asia that the rate of domestic violence is highest (37.7% in Southeast Asia, 37% in the Eastern Mediterranean, 36.6% in Africa, 29.8% in America, 25.4% in Europe and 24.6% in the Western Pacific) (OMS - Estimations mondiales et régionales de la violence contre les femmes)
For women, the deadliest continents are Africa and America. On the other hand, Europe has the lowest rate of feminicide, but in France, 109 women died in 2017, murdered by their spouses or someone close to them. (...) The survey also counts 25 men killed by their partners or ex, the latter being, in the majority of cases, victims of domestic violence. (United Nations report - GLOBAL STUDY ON HOMICIDE Gender-related killing of women and girls - 2018)
A total of 47 economies have adopted laws against domestic violence. (World Bank Group - WOMEN, ENTERPRISE AND LAW 2019)
214 feminicides in Turkey in the first 6 months of 2019. (Europe 1 - Association "We will stop feminicide")
Half of the human beings in the world are women. (The World Bank)
Girls represent 70% of students in the humanities and social sciences and less than 30% in the basic sciences. Most of them are in in preparatory classes : two-year undergraduate intensive course in literature (75%), only 30% in mathematics and / or physics preparatory classes.
Education, parental choices or the functioning of the education system remain differentiated between girls and boys. They explain the greater or lesser academic success in certain fields and especially the choices of orientation towards a particular field of study. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality - Gender Inequalities)
26% of engineering school students are women. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality - Gender Inequalities)
These inequalities are all the stranger because girls perform better in school than boys. Among the younger generations, they are more educated: 31.3% of women aged 25 to 34 have a higher degree than a Bachelor's degree, compared to only 26.4% of men. For the first time in 2013, 49% of managers entering the labour market are women. However, differences in salary are noted upon graduation : female graduates of the prestigious university of Sciences Po are paid 28% less than their male classmates. (Le Monde - Gender inequalities in 12 figures and 6 graphs)
In school textbooks there is a strong numerical imbalance in the representation of the sexes. (@the_s.i.m.o.n.e.s)
The clitoris is almost always absent from science textbooks in middle and high schools. (@the_s.i.m.o.n.e.s)
Scandal Saint Cyr 2018: "Until now, I had the project to join the Special Military School (ESM) of Saint-Cyr. I am ashamed that I wanted to go into an army that is not ready to receive women. I learned that carrying a vagina ruins a career, a vocation, a life.". (Libération Survey)
Professional & Employment Life
According to INSEE: in 2017, 67.6% of women and 75.6% of men aged 15 to 64 were part of the working population.
Women represent 48.1% of the working population. (INSEE - Tables of the French economy - 2019 Edition)
Women earn 24% less than men per year (average annual salary). (INSEE study - Women and men, equality in question - 2017 edition)
Although women represent 48% of the number of workers, they still earn 25% less overall than men. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality - Gender Inequalities)
In full-time equivalent, they receive 17% less per year. (INSEE study - Women and men, equality in question - 2017 edition)
For the same position and experience, women earn 12.8% less than men.
On the basis of comparable professional characteristics, the wage gap would amount to 8%. (INSEE study - Women and men, equality in question - 2017 edition)
Part-time employment rate is 4 times more frequent among women. (Instructions for use - Gender inequality figures in 2019)
Part-time work is an aggravating factor in pay gaps. This is not the only element of differentiation. Men are also more likely to receive overtime pay (55% for them compared to 37% for them), individual performance bonuses (36% compared to 29%), or bonuses linked to job constraints for on-call duty, hardship, risk (28% compared to 17%). (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality - Gender Inequalities)
Women perform 2.5 times more unpaid work than mens. (Women7official)
According to INSEE, in 2010, separated women saw their incomes fall by 14.5% while for men, they increased by 3% (these data take into account the pensions paid) - (BD EMMA - Michelle)
Discrimination at the beginning of a career is even more pronounced at the end of working life. Due to career differences, women retire on average one year later than men, with retirement entitlements 42% lower. However, INSEE notes that marital and family rights (e. g. survivors' pension) make it possible to reduce this gap to an average of 26%.
80% of women are regularly confronted with sexism at work (#NousToutes)
32% of French people have been sexually harassed or sexually assaulted at work (#NousToutes)
In 2014, 20% of working women said they had experienced sexual harassment during their working lives. (...) Sexual gestures and comments without the person's consent, the work environment tolerating sexual jokes and sexual blackmail are the most frequently reported manifestations with the sending of pornographic messages. The most identified authors are colleagues, then the employer or supervisor. (IFOP - Investigation of sexual harassment at work, 2014)
While the proportion of women in managerial positions has risen from 23% 20 years ago to 39% today, only 11% of women hold "high responsibility" positions (general management, department or entity management) compared to 23% of their male counterparts. The consequences of these career gaps are visible on wages. The average gross annual salary of women is 43,000 euros, which is 7,000 euros less than that of men. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality - Gender Inequalities)
Part of the wage gap is explained by the more frequent use of part-time work and less valued jobs : 44.8% of women's jobs are concentrated in a few low-paying sectors, such as public administration, health, education or social work, according to INSEE. However, when comparing pay under equivalent conditions (sector, full-time, age, etc.), there remains a gap of 9.9%, which constitutes "pure discrimination". (Le Monde - Gender inequalities in 12 figures and 6 graphs - 2018)
Women do not negotiate their wages as much as men : a Harvard Business Review study shows that women are 11% less likely to negotiate their wages than men. (Glamour - The Big Salary Reveal: 12 Real People Discover What the Pay Gap Looks Like)
Women wait to fill in all the boxes before applying for a position, while men do not hesitate to go even if they have only 60% of the required skills. (Cheek Magazine - Women's networks are signalling the emergence of a professional sorority - 2018)
"70% of people with high potential are affected by impostor syndrome, during an episode of doubt in their lives. The key moments: The entry into higher education, the arrival of a promotion, a change of position. Or the day you become a parent. Times when you have to prove to everyone that you're legitimate. This applies to both men and women, but women are more sensitive to it because they receive less support." (Madame Figaro - These women who suffer from impostor syndrome - 2015)
The glass ceiling is an expression that appeared in the United States at the end of the 1970s to describe all the obstacles that women face in reaching senior positions in professional hierarchies. The International Labour Organization defines the "glass ceiling" as the invisible barriers created by behavioural and organizational prejudices that prevent women from reaching the highest levels of responsibility. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality - Gender Inequalities)
"The irreducible glass ceiling for access to executive committees : Women represent only 13.69% of the executive committees, while they represent 32.33% of the executive population, a traditional source of recruitment for leaders. » (Study Skema Observatory on the feminisation of companies)
The proportion of executives is lower among women : 20.5% of male executives vs. 14.7% of female executives. (INSEE study - Women and men, equality in question - 2017 edition)
Women hold only 1 to 3 per cent of management positions in the world's largest companies. For those who are victims of racial discrimination, the percentage is even lower. (International Labour Organization - ILO Director General attacks capping of women's professional development)
In their networking practice, women privilege trust and the quality of the relationship over the volume of the address book. A closer network among women. They have only 50 contacts on average compared to 72 for their male counterparts. This can be explained by : A more selective approach to the pro network based on trust (37% fully trust vs. 31% for men). A tendency to maintain close ties with the members of their network. A network of "support" rather than a network of "careers". A quarter of women associate the network with more support compared to 18% of men. They benefit from openness and inspiration (33% vs. 25% for men). (IPSOS Study - WOMEN AND THE NETWORK: A RESTRICTED NETWORK BASED ON TRUST AND EXCHANGE)
35% of women consider that using networks does not correspond to their state of mind, only 29% are willing to use their professional network for professional opportunities (compared to 45% of their male counterparts) and 22% simply do not know how to do so. (Welcome to the Jungle - Women's networks : real professional leverage or fantasized sorority? - 2018)
Women say 33% (versus 25% of men) that they seek inspiration in the relationship and 25% (18% of men) that they expect sharing to "feel less alone". (EIPSOS/BCG/HEC study Alumni/HEC female - Professional networks as a factor for success - 2015)
For 37% of women (compared to 31% of men) only enter the perceived network of people in whom they have full confidence, including a majority of family members (for 81%, compared to 61% of men). For men (37% versus 33% of women), the circle is defined by the people to whom one can ask and provide services. IPSOS/BCG/HEC Study Alumni/HEC Women - Professional networks as a success factor - 2015)
"Women's networks are criticized for their elitism and lack of solidarity with non-executive women who are sometimes excluded from networks." (CSR Observatory - Study on women's networks in companies - 2016)
Concept of the "Shine Theory", according to which successful women should not see themselves as rivals but as partners because "self-confidence is contagious". "I don't shine if you don't" Ann Friedman explained in New York Magazine 2013. Surrounding yourself with the brightest people does not diminish you in comparison. It makes you better"..
A common strategy of solidarity used within the Obama administration by women who worked in the White House (1/3 of the workforce at the time) and whom they called "amplification".
During meetings, when a woman developed an idea, other women would repeat it. "It forced the men present to recognize the contribution, and prevented them from reclaiming the idea.". (Slate - In the White House, women have a unique way to make their voices heard in meetings - 2016)
On the preconceived idea : to believe that women would, by their nature, be unable to get along with each other, condemned to judge, criticize and behave as rivals to each other : this is a sociological behaviour that is far from definitive and that suits those in power well : "Male domination is so internalized by women that they underestimate themselves. They deny themselves as a devalued and flawed gender." (RTL - Sorority: why and how to end rivalry between women - 2018)
ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCING & ECONOMICS
"The characteristics of the entrepreneur are the same for men and women : rebellion, intensity, idealism, pragmatism and curiosity. On the other hand, women entrepreneurs have other things in common : a strong tendency to underestimate themselves, a lack of trust, a fear of judgment, and impostor's syndrome. This difference is due to the perception we have of ourselves, of a construction inherited from education. But this difference is no less real and disabling." (ChEEk MAGAZINE - How can we encourage women's ambition ? Alice Zagury - President and co-founder of The Family - 2019)
Only 2.6% of fundraising activities deployed for women-led start-ups : of which women are founders or co-founders. 9.1% of funds deployed for mixed start-ups. (SISTA Website - DISTRIBUTION OF FUNDRAISING IN THE LAST 5 YEARS - SISTA)
Mixed teams outperform men's teams by 20%. (Les Echos 2019 - Study by Global Contact, 2016)
The Femina Index (a portfolio composed of shares of companies whose management is more than 40% feminized) outperforms the CAC40 in the medium term (2013-2019) and in the long term (2009-2019) (Study Skema Observatory on the feminisation of companies)
If women took a greater share of economic life, GDP would increase by 3.9%. (OIT - Report World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends for women - 2017)
In the World
In 2018, two-thirds of the world's 750 million adult illiterates are women.
Girls are 1.5 times more likely than boys to be excluded from primary school and inequality of opportunity is particularly pronounced in developing countries : less than 2/3 of girls complete primary education, and only 1 in 3 complete lower secondary education in low-income countries. More than 130 million girls do not go to school at all.
For example, globally, nearly 15 million girls under the age of 18 marry each year, most often sacrificing their schooling. (Report of the G7 Advisory Council 2019 & UN - GENDER EQUALITY: WHY IT MATTERS).
Professional & Employment Life
The 2019 World Bank report shows that discriminatory laws that prevent women from having the same opportunities as men, from accessing the labour market or entrepreneurship and from being protected in their workplaces, constitute obstacles to economic aunomization. (World Bank Group - WOMEN, COMPANY AND LAW 2019)
"A study published in 2015 by three American researchers indicates that out of 1,200 companies observed over 20 years, structures where women held management positions were also those where other women were most likely to move up the ladder. It is this virtuous circle, which makes the promotion of a woman the tool for the promotion of women, that we intend to extend through sorority. » (Libération - After #MeToo, sorority as an engine of feminism - 2019)
Globally, women continue to be paid approximately 20% less than men (study covering 70 countries and about 80% of employees worldwide). (OIT - Global Wage Report 2018/19 - 2019)
Domestic work and unpaid care are the main reasons why women remain outside the formal labour market. Worldwide, 606 million working-age women (21.7%) work full-time without pay, compared to 41 million men (1.5%). (Report of the G7 Advisory Council 2019)
Emerging economies such as Ghana, Uganda and Vietnam have higher rates of women entrepreneurs than more developed countries. Women entrepreneurs as a % of all business leaders (top 10): Ghana (46.4%), Russia (34.6%), Uganda (33.8%), New Zealand (33.0%), Australia (32.1%), Vietnam (31.3%), Poland (30.3%), Spain (29.4%), Romania (28.9%), Portugal (28.7%). (MastercardIndex of WomenEntrepreneurs (MIWE) 2018)
In the United States, Black Women are paid on average 39% less than White Men. (@Leaninorg)
35 economies have banned sexual harassment in the workplace. (World Bank Group - WOMEN, COMPANY AND LAW 2019)
More than 2.7 billion women do not have the right to access the same jobs as men in the world. In 18 countries, husbands can also prohibit their wives from working. (Report of the G7 Advisory Council 2019)
Half of the Human Beings in the World are Women. (The World Bank)
France would rank 12th in the ranking of the best health systems in the world. (Bloomberg - These Are the World’s Healthiest Nations)
97% of women who want to avoid pregnancy use contraception - and more than 70% of them use female contraception (pills, IUDs, etc.) (INED - What are the most commonly used contraceptive methods in the world? ? - 2017 & Emma)
In France, the right to abortion is practiced without medical, moral or economic justification, within a prescribed time limit. It is prohibited to perform a surgical abortion after the 12th week of pregnancy. (INED - Abortion worldwide - 2018)
Only 72% of mothers have a job, compared to 85% of fathers, and of the latter, one-third (33%) work part-time, compared to only 4% of fathers on average. (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality - Gender Inequalities)
Women represent 84% of single parents and have a 24% lower standard of living than their male counterparts. (INSEE study - 27% of families with children are single parents - 2019)
In France, paternity leave is only 11 days, while compulsory maternity leave is 16 weeks. (Service Public.fr - Leave in the private sector)
Not having a child for a woman is still suspicious. (@the_s.i.m.o.n.e.s)
According to INSEE, in 2010, women were responsible for 64% of domestic tasks and 71% of parental tasks in households. In 1985, these rates were 69% and 80% respectively. (INSEE - Domestic and parental time for men and women : what factors have changed in 25 years ? - 2015)
Women spend 183 min every day on domestic tasks and 95 min on children (an average of 4h38), twice as much as their spouses (2h26 on average for men) (Secretariat of State for Gender Equality - Gender Inequalities & Emma)
The Mental Load still falls on women. (@the_s.i.m.o.n.e.s)
"Health, entrepreneurship, retirement, wealth. Being a woman undeniably helps to understand the daily life of her peers in order to better advise them, and vice versa. (ELLE.fr - How does sorority help protect women? - 2019)
The pressure and injunctions that weigh on women's bodies are extremely numerous and harmful (not to get fat, not to age, to dress well, to wax, to dye their hair, etc.) (@the_s.i.m.o.n.e.s)
Male chauvinism and ordinary sexism persist (@the_s.i.m.o.n.e.s)
Racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance manifest themselves differently against women and girls, and may be among the factors that lead to the deterioration of their living conditions, generate poverty, violence and multiple forms of discrimination, limit or deprive them of their human rights.
In the World
Every 24 hours, about 830 women around the world die from preventable causes directly related to their pregnancy and childbirth. (@women7official)
About 300,000 women still die each year from pregnancy-related complications, with maternal mortality being one of the leading causes of death among women aged 15-19. (Report of the G7 Advisory Council 2019 & Global, regional, and national levels and trends in maternal mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030).
The 2018 G7 Advisory Council on Gender Equality demonstrated that when girls and women are educated, healthy, included and able to make decisions about their own lives and bodies, there is a virtuous circle that benefits individuals, but also families, communities and countries. (Recommendations of the Advisory Council on Gender Equality for the Canadian Presidency of the G7 2018)
214 million women of childbearing age in the world who want to avoid pregnancy do not use modern contraception.
(Report of the G7 Advisory Council 2019 & Global, regional, and national levels and trends in maternal mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030).
97% of women who want to avoid pregnancy use contraception - and more than 70% of them use female contraception (pills, IUDs, etc.) (INED - What are the most widely used contraceptive methods in the world ? - 2017 & Emma)
The right to abortion is limited in more than two thirds of countries.
In 2011, only 58 countries, or less than a third of all countries, allow voluntary abortions without medical, moral or economic justification. In general, this right is accompanied by a time limit (in France, for example, it is prohibited to perform a surgical abortion after the 12th week of pregnancy).
In 2016, 68 countries still have a total ban on abortion. (INED - Abortion worldwide - 2018)
In 2008, 43.8 million voluntary abortions were performed worldwide, nearly half of them under dangerous and illegal conditions. It is estimated that nearly 70,000 women die each year as a result of unsafe abortion. (INED - What are the most commonly used contraceptive methods in the world ? - 2017)
New HIV infections among young women (aged 15-24) are about 44% higher than among young men.
Unipolar depression, which is expected to be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020, is twice as common among women.
Between 2005 and 2015, the employment rate gap between mothers with young children and women without children of the same age was 38.4%. Mothers of young children have lower occupancy rates in management and governance positions (25.1%) compared to their male counterparts (i.e. fathers of young children) (74.9%). (Report of the G7 Advisory Council 2019)
33 economies across the regions have introduced paternity leave. (World Bank Group - WOMEN, COMPANY AND LAW 2019)
1.7 billion adults still do not have a bank account, and most of them are women.
Globally, 72% of men and 65% of women have an account, a gap of 7 percentage points between the sexes.
In developing economies, the gender gap is 9 points on average (67% of men, but only 59% of women), while there is no significant gap in high-income economies.
Overall, the gaps between women and men in this area have remained virtually unchanged since 2011. (GSMA - Connected women 2015 - Bridging the gender gap)
40% of women in the world do not have access to formal financial services. (@women7official)
Laws that require the husband's permission for a number of activities, such as opening a bank account, obtaining an identity card, registering a birth or obtaining a loan, are major obstacles to women's economic empowerment. (Report of the G7 Advisory Council 2019)
In 11 countries, married women cannot obtain an identity card in the same way as men, which prevents them from accessing financial and banking services, finding a job or even obtaining a mobile phone. (World Bank Group - WOMEN, COMPANY AND LAW 2019)
In 17 countries, women cannot move outside the home in the same way as men, which means that they have difficulty getting to work, to the bank or to other service providers.
Restrictions on women's driving can have similar effects.
Laws on "heads of families" exist in 31 countries and designate men as responsible for property, decisions and family assets.
A number of discriminatory laws and social norms currently prevent women from building capital.
Half of the human beings in the world are women. (The World Bank)
In France, one year after the 2017 elections, the Senate is composed of about 30% women, compared to 25% in 2014. This increase is the result of the application of parity-based constraints in the departments concerned by the list vote and the effects of the law prohibiting the accumulation of mandates. The parliamentary elections held in 2017 also led to a sharp increase in parity, with 40% of women deputies, compared to 26% in 2012.. (INSEE, TTable of the French economy - Edition 2019)
With the senatorial elections in September 2017, the proportion of women in the upper house of Parliament is increasing, but at a slow pace. "At this rate, it will take until 2026 to achieve parity in the Senate" as stated by the High Council for Equality between Women and Men (HCE). Women now hold 31.6% of seats, compared to 25% in the 2014 elections. An increase due in part to the joint obligations for the lists of candidates, even if women are rarely at the top of the list. And on the other hand, an increase facilitated by the ban on the accumulation of mandates in place since 2017, which has made it possible to free senatorial seats invested by a few women. (Inégalites.fr - Observation of gender inequalities in politics)
The executives of the Senate, i.e. the positions of power, also remain largely male. Of the 8 vice-president positions, 3 are held by women, as in 2014. It should be recalled that the presidency of the Senate has never been held by a woman until now. (Inégalites.fr - Observation of gender inequalities in politics)
The National Assembly elected on 18 June 2017 includes 38.7% women, a significant increase from 26.9 per cent in 2012. At this rate of progress, parity would be achieved in the next legislative elections, which remains unlikely given that the 2017 election will have been exceptional. It should not be forgotten that only twenty years ago, the National Assembly had only 11% women and the Senate 6%. (Inégalites.fr - Observation of gender inequalities in politics)
In 2019, the budget of the State Secretariat for Equality between Women and Men amounts to €30 million, the same as in 2018. The fact that there is no reduction is a good thing, but it represents only 0.0066% of the general State budget : it is a drop in the bucket ! All costs combined - hospitalizations, compensation for victims, etc. - Violence against women costs society 3.6 billion euros every year. (Elle - Violence against women : a year of fighting, what results? - 2018)
In the context of gender equality, the government spent €530 million in 2019 (more than 1,300 subsidised associations, gender-sensitive budget applied in 5 ministries, 50% of official development assistance for projects integrating gender equality). (@MarleneSchiappa)
The collective #NousToutes called in early June for a budget of one billion euros to fight domestic violence, the amount promised by Spain in 2017 for five years. (L'EXPRESS - Combating feminicide : Spain, a model to follow?)
Law of August 3, 2018 - Assessment after one year : 713 fines for "sexual and sexist, degrading, humiliating, intimidating, hostile or offensive statements or behaviour" have been placed by the police throughout the country, the majority of them in flagrante delicto. (RTL - Anti-Street Harassment Act : 713 tickets for "sexist insult" in one year)
In the news media too, parity remains an unfinished business. A study of French daily newspapers over a week in 2015 showed that only 14.5% of women appear on the "front page" and that in the articles only 21.5% of the interlocutors cited are women. (Le Monde - Gender inequalities in 12 figures and 6 graphs - 2018)
Women artists, researchers and politicians remain under-represented. (@the_s.i.m.o.n.e.s)
In the World
In 2019 : out of 193 countries, only 10 are headed by women. (ONU - Women in politics : 2019)
Today, women represent 6.6% of the world's heads of state, 5.2% of heads of government and 24.3% of parliamentarians. (ONU - Women in politics : 2019)
Women represent only 13% of the world's parliamentarians and 21 countries have a woman as vice-chief of state. (OIT- ILO Director-General attacks ceiling on women's professional development)
Although women represent almost 40% of union members worldwide, only 1% of union leaders are women. (OIT- ILO Director-General attacks ceiling on women's professional development)